The Good, an idea proposed by Socrates in Plato’s Republic, is an important concept to understand. Socrates defines a form as the final idea that all physical object of its type point toward and imperfectly attempt to be. For example the form of all chair is the idea of a perfect chair or “chairness”. Chairs can be different, but what makes something a chair is its similarity to the perfect “chairness”. With this in mind the Good is the singular thing in which is the perfection of everything. To define the Good through natural law, the belief that there are things that are true regardless of anything else and that these truths can be found by man’s reason alone, let us set aside all biases that might lead to conclusions outside of pure reason. I will approach this pursuit through the ontological argument, for although this argument is intended to prove the existence of a theistic God it convenient shows the character of the Good.
Let us imagine the most logically emphatic thing possible, logically emphatic in this sense being impactful or having “umph”. Since this thing would have more drive if it existed, existence is one of its qualities. Would it be reasonable to say a something could be impactful at all if it simply were not anything at all? Now let us consider this thing’s other attributes. Would it have more “umph” if it was strong or weak, healthy or ill, infinite or finite? Moreover, how do we understand weakness but as lack of strength, ill but as lack of health, finite but as of lack of infinite? Each greater idea comes before and supersedes the lesser idea; the lesser is merely the lack of the greater. Thus this most logically emphatic thing is that which lacks nothing. It is the perfect form of everything. It is the Good.